The vascular system including the cardiovascular system, liver, lungs, etc. can provide a range of primary cells that are particularly used in research applications. The most popular types of primary cells used in in vitro research applications are endothelial cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, melanocytes, etc. These are the heterogenous population that is being maintained in vitro for a limited period of time. These cells are highly in demand for in vitro applications due to their minimized ethical concerns over animal use and ability to represent the most relevant results as compared to alternative cell lines. These cells are also in demand for 3D culture, cancer research, drug screening assays, and genetic engineering.
Depending upon the type of primary cells needed, the cell source from the vascular system is chosen; primary islets are isolated from the human pancreas, whereas cardiomyocytes are isolated from human cardiac appendages. The cells are then quality controlled for morphology, growth rate, adherence potential, characterization, etc. The cell sources are also assessed for the absence of infectious markers.